Grade 8 science textbook glossary

Any water-soluble compound having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt. Acid has a pH-level of less than 7. Rain which is unusually acidic pH of less than the natural range of 5 to 6caused mainly by atmospheric pollution with sulphur dioxide and nitrogen compounds. A mixture of gases especially oxygen required for breathing; the stuff that the atmosphere consists of.

Air pressure is the weight of the atmosphere pressing down on the earth. It is measured by a barometer in units called millibars. Albert Einstein 14 March — 18 April was born in Germany and was a Jewish philosopher and author, who is widely regarded as one of the most influential and best known scientists and intellectuals of all time. Inhe joined the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey and lived and worked there until his death.

Relating to or containing an alkali, hence having a pH greater than 7. A sperm whale secretion. Sperm whales produce it to protect their stomachs from the beaks of the cuttlefish they swallow, and formerly valued greatly in the manufacturing process of perfumes. An electronic device that changes, usually increases, the strength or amplitude of a signal passing through it.

An anemometer is a meteorological instrument that measures wind speed, either be gauging velocity or pressure. The gases surrounding the Earth or any astronomical body of sufficient mass, held together by the gravity of the body. Very small living organisms made of only one cell which are present everywhere the air, the soil, on the skin. Many types of bacteria can cause diseases, but others can be very helpful to humans.

The point along the length of the shaft at which it will balance itself when placed on a fulcrum. An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure, used especially in weather forecasting, but is also used to measure altitude. The point at the centre of a system; an average point, weighted according to mass or other attribute. The opposite of an acid. A Base has a pH-level of more than 7.

grade 8 science textbook glossary

Franklin was a leading author and printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. A device in which soil is placed; heat and light are applied from above, forcing bugs into a container below it.

Named after Antonio Berlese an Italian entomologist. The principle of conservation of energy applied to fluid flow: as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the air pressure within the fluid decreases. Named after Daniel Bernoulli, a Swiss mathematician and scientist, Bernoulli is famous for his work in the field of fluid dynamics. In he wrote a book called Hydrodynamica. In this book he explained his theories about how gases and fluids move, and how the speed at which they move affects the pressure they exert on objects they flow around.

The biceps of a human is a muscle located on the upper arm. The biceps has several functions, the most important being to rotate the forearm and to flex the elbow.Click here for English Language Learner's Glossary. While there are different philosophies and learning styles, teachers must first evaluate the ability of each English Language Learner ELL.

A sample ability chart is summarized here. It is important to recognize that not every strategy attempted will yield success, nor will progress always be immediate. Additional accommodations may be necessary.

Each chapter begins with a short introduction, key questions, and an overview of three areas of focus: Read, Investigate, and Apply. This page helps English Language Learners understand the organization of the student materials. The teacher should specify which parts students should attempt. The chapter pretest can be read aloud and completed orally or modified by shortening phrases and reducing answer choices. The two page Study Guide initiates interaction between teachers and peers.

This guide is a cross curricular approach to linguistically accommodate English Language Learners. It bridges prior knowledge and experiences, scaffolds vocabulary, introduces teaching strategies and allows time for self-corrective techniques prior to introduction of grade level content. Teachers may team or group students by ability or with mentors. The Chapter Summary portion should be read aloud in class or in sheltered instruction.

This provides opportunities for students to retell or summarize what they heard.

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TEKS form the foundational language needed to read grade level content. In each Chapter Summary, basic vocabulary terms are reviewed in context in bold print.

The Helpful Vocabulary section provides additional support for basic vocabulary. New academic terms appear first in italics in the Chapter Summary and are featured again later in each lesson in blue boxes. Clarifying and confirming understanding with individual students is necessary prior to assessment. Explore helps English Language Learners find success using labeled images of materials and learn new essential language while completing investigations.Quizzes make learning fun!

There is no quicker way to learn about Science in Middle School - Grades 6, 7 and 8. The whole of the scientific world is awash with fantastic facts and statistics.

To become a scientist you will need to learn to be very observant and accurate. Did you notice that our 10 facts above were only 9?

In your school science lessons you will have opportunities to get involved in many hands-on experiments and you will find that the more you see, the more you will learn and the more you learn the more enjoyable it will be. To comply with the new e-Privacy directive, we need to ask for your consent - I agree - No thanks - Find out more.

Parents Students Tutors Teachers. Join Us Login. There is no quicker way to learn about Science in Middle School - Grades 6, 7 and 8 The whole of the scientific world is awash with fantastic facts and statistics.

grade 8 science textbook glossary

Pick a quiz on a subject you know about and play it to see if you know as much as you think! Our Social Circles. We use cookies to make your experience of our website better. Acids and Alkalis. Adaptation of Animals and Plants. Anatomy - Growth and Development. Anatomy - Musculoskeletal System.

8th Grade Vocabulary Word List

Anatomy - Teeth. Anatomy - The Heart. Anatomy - The Immune System. Anatomy - The Lymphatic System. Anatomy - The Reproductive System. Animal Cells. Atoms and Elements 1. Atoms and Elements 2. Atoms and Elements 3. Atoms and Elements 4. Basic Anatomy - Blood. Basic Anatomy - The Brain. Basic Anatomy - The Circulatory System. Basic Anatomy - The Digestive System.

Basic Anatomy - The Ear. Basic Anatomy - The Eye. Basic Anatomy - The Muscles. Basic Anatomy - The Nervous System. Basic Anatomy - The Respiratory System. Basic Anatomy - The Skeleton. Basic Anatomy - Tissues and Organs.The following text is used only for teaching, research, scholarship, educational use and informative purpose following the fair use principles. We thank the authors of the texts and the source web site that give us the opportunity to share their knowledge. Animalia Animal - kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that lack cell walls, can usually move around, and quickly respond to their environment.

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Archaean plural-Archaea - kingdom made up of unicellular prokaryotic cells that can survive in extreme environments. ATP - see adenosine triphosphate. September 20 or 21 average speed - distance traveled divided by the time it takes to travel this distance.

Bacteria - kingdom made up of unicellular prokaryotic cells that usually have a cell wall and reproduce by binary fission. Celsius oC - temperature scale used in the metric system at which water freezes at 0o and boils at o. Doppler effect - apparent change in the wavelengths of light that occurs when an object is moving toward or away from the Earth.

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Earth system - all of the nonliving things, living things, and processes that make up the planet Earth, including the solid Earth, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere.

El Nino - disturbance of wind patterns and ocean currents in the Pacific Ocean that causes temporary climate changes in many parts of the world. Eukarya - domain made up of all eukaryotes.

Glossopteris - extinct seed fern that grew about million years ago. Golgi apparatus body - secretory structure consisting of a stack of flat sacs that store and convert or modify proteins.

grade 8 science textbook glossary

Haversian canal - passageway running through the thick bone, containing blood vessels and nerves. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram H-R diagram - chart of the relationship between the absolute magnitude and the surface temperature of stars.

International System of Units SI - system of units used in science; metric system. Kelvin K - temperature scale SI unit that has its zero at absolute zero where matter stops moving; water freezes at Kuiper Belt - region of the solar system that is just beyond the orbit of Neptune and that contains small bodies made mostly of ice.

La Nina - change in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which the surface water temperature becomes unusually cool. L wave - surface wave. Mesosaurus - extinct reptile that swam in freshwater ponds, lakes, and rivers. Mohs hardness scale - scale used to determine the hardness of a mineral. Pangaea - one large landmass of which all the continents were once a part according to the theory of continental drift.

Polaris - north star. Protista Protist - kingdom made up of unicellular eukaryotic cells. Punnett square - graphic checkerboard used to determine results from a particular genetic cross. P wave - seismic wave that causes particles of rock to move in a back-and-forth direction. Richter scale - measure of the amount of energy an earthquake releases.

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Ring of Fire - major earthquake and volcano zone that extends nearly all the way around the edge of the Pacific Ocean. Robinson projection - map projection that has accurate continent shapes and accurate land areas; has parallel latitude lines and curved longitude lines.This eighth grade vocabulary list was built from an analysis of difficult words that appear in basal readers and other books commonly taught in the 8th grade.

Those words were then analyzed to see how often they appeared on English Language Arts state tests given in the eighth, ninth and tenth grades. This vocabulary word list is free and printable, but is also available through our systematic vocabulary development program, The Word Up Project, which has been proven to raise scores.

You can also view the word lists of the other levels of The Word Up Project. Get printable worksheets to teach 8th grade vocabulary now! Eccentric elite embargo embark encroach endeavor enhance enigma epoch era eventful evolve exceptional excerpt excruciating exemplify exotic Facilitate fallacy fastidious feasible fend ferret flair flustered foreboding forfeit formidable fortify foster Gaunt gingerly glut grapple grope gullible Haggard haven heritage hindrance hover humane Imperative inaugurate incense indifferent infinite instill institute intervene intricate inventive inventory irascible Jurisdiction Languish legendary liberal loll lucrative luminous Memoir mercenary mien millennium minimize modify muse muster.

Onslaught ornate ovation overt Pang panorama perspective phenomenon pioneer pithy pivotal plausible plunder porous preposterous principal prodigy proficient profound pseudonym pungent Rankle rational rebuke reception recourse recur renounce renown revenue rubble rue Sage sedative serene servile shackle sleek spontaneous sporadic stamina stance staple stint strident sublime subside succumb surpass susceptible swelter Tedious teem theme tirade tract transition trepidation turbulent tycoon Ultimate ungainly Vice versa vie vilify voracious Wage wrangle.This teacher's edition includes a scope and sequence for the course, daily lesson plans, and teaching notes for each chapter.

The scope and sequence helps you plan ahead by giving you an overview of the science course. Each lesson plan includes sections such as "Preparation" and "Teaching Procedure" that allow you to spend less time planning and more time teaching. The teaching notes include chapter overviews, lab notes, in-class activity ideas, section review answers, and additional information to enrich your lessons. Student pages are included at a reduced size with teacher notes in the surrounding margins.

This set includes:. Open your 8th grader's eyes to the wonders of geology, oceanography, meteorology, and more with Science: Earth and Space Teacher Edition Volume 1 from Abeka. This special teacher's edition is fully equipped with a scope and sequence for the course, daily lesson plans, and teaching notes for each chapter.

This volume 1 covers chapters of Science: Earth and Space. Combine with Science: Earth and Space Teacher Edition Volume 2 sold-separately to be fullyprepared for the whole year.

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Open your 8th grader's eyes to the wonders of geology, oceanography, meteorology, and more with Science: Earth and Space Teacher Edition Volume 2 from Abeka. This volume 2 covers chapters of Science: Earth and Space. Combine with Science: Earth and Space Teacher Edition Volume 1 sold-sepa rately to be fullyprepared for the whole year. Abeka's Science: Earth and Space, 2nd Edition curriculum explores the fields of geology, oceanography, meteorology, astronomy, and environmental science from a Christian perspective.

Chapters begin with key concepts listed out; throughout the chapter important words are highlighted in bold.

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Chapter reviews are also included. Complete with chapter reviews, interesting pictures, and clear diagrams, your child will finish 8th grade science with a detailed understanding of earth and space science. Engage your students with activities like: colorful picture diagrams, thinking exercises on key concepts, crossword puzzles with terms and vocabulary, fill in the blank review, and more.

The second section of this activity book features STEM project instructions and articles. In the STEM project, your student learns to keep a logbook, write a background paper, and create a research plan. Make organization easy with the evaluations and grade forms at the back of the book.

Grade 8.This is explained later.

grade 8 science textbook glossary

You may wager that the total score of the game will be more or less than the number listed. It makes no difference which team wins. Simply add the final scores of each team.

If either doesn't happen, the bet is refunded. A favorite must win by 2 runs or more, or the underdog must either:(a) Win the game. The payout varies according to the money line odds assigned to each outcome. Note: Same rules apply to run line bets as totals. Baseball parlays are figured out by calculating the payout for the first game, based on the money line, then applying that amount to the next game, and so-forth.

If a game is postponed for any reason, the parlay reduces by one team. The bet is treated as if the postponed game were never included in the parlay. Simply ask the betting attendant at your favorite sports book what your payout would be before placing the bet. When making a baseball bet, you are betting team vs. You have the option to specify that either or both listed pitchers must start the game.

Since baseball odds are determined on starting pitchers, any late pitching changes often force an adjustment in the odds. This will increase or decrease the payout on a winning ticket.

However, if you list starting pitchers, and your pitcher doesn't start, then the bet is refunded. To bet on basketball, tell the ticket writer the bet number of the team you wish to bet, with the point spread, and the amount you wish to wager. The Point Spread: When betting on basketball, the team you bet on must "cover the spread. The point spread is always placed to the immediate right of the team that is favored.

In this example, if you bet the Bulls, the Bulls must win by 4 points for you to win your bet. If you bet the Lakers, any of the following will declare you a winner. Point spreads change constantly.

8th Grade Vocabulary Word List

The listed point spread the time you make your bet may be different from the point spread when the game starts. The point spread that is listed on your ticket is your official spread. It makes no difference which team covers the spread. Simply add the final score of each team.

Odds and the number of teams vary from casino to casino. The following are approximate odds:Any game that results in a push reduces the parlay one team. A two-team parlay would become a straight bet. This increases the probability of winning your bet but decreases the odds of the parlay. Odds and the number of points available to "tease" vary from casino to casino.

The following are approximate odds:To bet on boxing, tell the ticket writer the bet number of the boxer you wish to bet and the amount you wish to wager.


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